Technology leadership - The iFL is a field portable integrated chlorophyll fluorometer - photosynthesis system
The iFL is the first instrument of its kind to provide leaf absorptance measurement, first to offer white LED lighting that allows chloroplast migration to occur, first to offer humidity control above ambient, first to offer "walk-away automation", first to offer automated post-processing for the Laisk protocol, the Kok protocol, the Yin protocol and the Flexas chamber leakage protocol.
The iFL - LCpro-SD is a portable integrated photosynthesis - chlorophyll fluorescence measuring system with fully programmable microclimate control. This system is very easy to use, yet repeatable, accurate and reliable. Its abilities to measure leaf absorptance, and provide white actinic light to allow more reliable leaf chloroplast migration, and leaf xanthophyll cycle adjustment make the iFL a technology leader. Furthermore, advanced automation software allows direct readout of gm, Rd, Γ*, CC, VCMAX, JMAX, chamber leakage corrections, and the results of A/CC curves. Leaf temperature is measured with a large area IR sensor for more reliable measurement. Programmable PAR intensity is maintained using a feedback loop using and a PAR sensor inside the measuring chamber. Ambient PAR can also be tracked and reproduced in the chamber with an external PAR sensor. Battery charge life is at least 8 hours.
Parameters Measured and Protocols included:
Selectable readout in either μmols, mmols, and moles, or in ppm and mbars.
Quantum Yield of PSII (or ΔF/Fm' or Y(II)).
Electron transport rate also known as ETR.
Photosynthetically Active Region value.
Leaf absorptance of PAR spectrum using RGB sensors above the leaf and below the leaf. Corrected for leaf transmittance.
Leaf temperature is measured with an infrared sensor.
Laisk protocol for Rd and Γ*.
Yin protocol for Rd.
Kok protocol for Rd.
gm Mesophyll conductance.
Cc - CO2 at the site of carboxilation.
Γ* Compensation point absent of day respiration.
Rd Respiration in the light.
Rd, Γ* and other parameters or constants may also be input manually.
Light curves & A/Q light response curves A/Ci curves, A/Cc curves.
Maximum Photochemical efficiency of PSII.
A more sensitive detector of stress than FV/FM, but it does not measure plant efficiency.
Maximal fluorescence with actinic illumination.
FS (or F):
Fluorescence under steady state conditions (prior to saturation pulse).
(ΦPSII or ΔF/Fm') Quantum Yield of PSII.
Rapid light curves
A measure of a leaf's photosynthetic capacity or maximum electron transport rate
α is the initial slope of line at low PAR values created by relating ETR to PAR. It provides a measure of quantum efficiency.
The light intensity where ETRMAX occurs.
Ik = rETRmax /α:
A measurement of the light intensity where light saturation dominates, or the minimum saturation level.
Hendrickson Quenching with NPQ:
Y(NPQ), Y(NO), Y(II), NPQ, FV/FM.
qL, Y(NPQ), Y(NO), Y(II), FV/FM.
Puddle model parameters:
NPQ, qN, qP, Y(II), FV/FM.
Walk Away automation sequence builder. Build a sequence, build a protocol, or stitch multiple protocols together.
White LED with 690 nm short pass filter. 7,500 μmols.
660 nm LED with 690 nm short pass filter.
Automated routine to optimally set the modulated light intensity. The modulated light may also be set manually.
Actinic light source:
White LED to 2000 μmols.
Far red light:
Above 740 nm.
Blue sensors for absorptance measurement
Red sensors for absorptance measurement
Green sensors for absorptance measurement
Two silicon diodes.
One is inside the fluorometer chamber to measure PAR at the leaf level. It maintains a constant actinic light irradiation level throughout measuring routines, to ensure constant and proper intensity for steady state measurements. It is also used to measure absorptance diode intensity.
The second PAR sensor is on top of the fluorometer. It can be used to measure and track or set ambient light irradiation at the angle of the leaf. This sensor can be used to match ambient PAR intensity in the leaf chamber in an automatic fashion. When it is desired, this feature can be used set light level on partly cloudy days to either sunny conditions, or cloudy conditions to minimized the time required to reach steady state conditions for ambient light measurements.
Pulse modulation method.
Detector & Filters:
A PIN photodiode with a 700 ~ 750 nm bandpass filter.
Auto-switching from 10 to 10,000 points per second, depending on phase of test.
FM' correction for all light adapted protocols. (According to Loriaux 2013). It may be turned on or off.
Adjustable from 20 seconds to 160 hours.
2 Gigabytes of non-volitile internal flash memory.
USB, SD/MMC 2 Gigabyte data cards .
Display: Graphic color touch screen
Menu driven software.
8 hours of continuous combined operation.
All day carrying harness
Optional measuring chambers
In operation on conifer plant
iFL - Truly field portable - 8 hour battery life
On tripod for longer measuring protocols
How FM' correction works
How FM' correction works
Kok protocol post-processing
Laisk protocol post processing with von Caemmerer correction option
Yin protocol post-processing
Flexas chamber leakage measurement protocol
(Tripod not included)
Opti-Sciences, Inc. 8 Winn Avenue Hudson NH 03051 USA (603)883-4400